Civil Aviation Authority: Certification and surveillance functions.

Accident: Means an occurrence that is associated with the operation of an aircraft and takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight and such time as all such persons have disembarked and the engine or any propellers or rotors come to rest, being an occurrence in which –

(a) A person is fatally or seriously injured as a result of–

(i) Being in the aircraft; or

(ii) Direct contact with any part of the aircraft, including any part that has become detached from the aircraft; or

(iii) Direct exposure to jet blast–

except where the injuries are self-inflicted or inflicted by other persons, or when the injuries are to stowaways hiding outside the areas normally available to passengers and crew; or

(b) The aircraft sustains damage or structural failure that –

(i) Adversely affects the structural strength, performance, or flight characteristics of the aircraft; and

(ii) Would normally require major repair or replacement of the affected component –

except engine failure or damage that is limited to the engine, its cowlings, or accessories, or damage limited to propellers, wing tips, rotors, antennas, tyres, brakes, fairings, small dents, or puncture holes in the aircraft skin; or

(c) The aircraft is missing or is completely inaccessible.

Act: The Civil Aviation Act 1990.

Airline sector: Operators of aircraft weighing more than 5670kg, or containing 10 or more seats, along with the associated maintenance, training, design, manufacturing and supply organisations.

Aviation document: Any licence, permit, certificate, or other document issued under the Act to or in respect of any person, aircraft, aerodrome, aeronautical product, or aviation-related service.

Certification: An entry process to ensure that an applicant is able to comply with the Civil Aviation Act 1990, and with the associated Civil Aviation Rules before being issued with an aviation document.

Civil Aviation Rules: Rules made under Part 3 of the Civil Aviation Act 1990, which are “secondary” legislation, like statutory regulations. Participants in the civil aviation system are required to comply with the rules that are relevant to the documents that they hold.

Exposition: A suite of manuals containing information about an operator’s (or an operation’s) general policies, duties, operational control policy, procedures, and the responsibilities of personnel. The exposition is the principal means of showing that the management and control systems required under the Civil Aviation Rules are in place. Part 119 requires these manuals to include the instructions, procedures, and information necessary to permit the personnel concerned to perform their duties and responsibilities with an acceptable degree of safety. The information that must be addressed in the exposition depends on the scope of the operation.

General Aviation sector: Operators of aircraft that weigh less than 5670kg and have 9 seats or less; all helicopter, agricultural and balloon operations; and all sport and recreation aviation (both commercial and private).

Incident: Any occurrence, other than an accident, that is associated with the operation of an aircraft that affects or could affect the safety of the operation.

Inspector: An airworthiness inspector or a flight operations inspector. (In our 1997 and 2000 reports, we used the term “safety auditor”.).

Operator: Participants in the civil aviation system – whether individuals or firms.

Participant: Defined in the Act as anyone who does anything for which an aviation document is required. Participants therefore include airline operators, pilots, and maintenance providers.

Quality Index: A qualitative score, reflecting the “level of confidence” that an inspector has in an organisation. It is based on the audit work done by the inspector during the routine audit.

Safety Target Group (STG) : There are 9 Safety Target Groups, distinguished by the type of aircraft, the weight of the aircraft, and the type of operation being carried out.

Surveillance: The function of the Civil Aviation Authority that monitors operator adherence to the Civil Aviation Act 1990, the Civil Aviation Rules, and operators’ expositions. It includes identifying action that operators need to take to ensure that they comply with safety standards.

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